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Industrial Revolution; a rapid development in industry; specifically the development which took place in England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, chiefly owing to the introduction of new or improved machinery and large-scale production methods.
The Industrial Revolution is not simply an acceleration of economic growth, but an acceleration of growth because of, and through, economic and social transformation.
Whoever says Industrial Revolution says cotton. When we think of it, we see, like the
contemporary foreign visitors to England, the new and revolutionary city of Manchester,
which multiplied tenfold in size between 1760 and 1830 (from 17,000 to 180,000
inhabitants), where ‘we observe hundreds of five- and six-storied factories, each with a
towering chimney by its side, which exhales black coal vapour’; which proverbially thought
today what England would think tomorrow, and gave its name to the school of liberal
economics that dominated the world. And there can be no doubt that this perspective is
right. The British Industrial Revolution was by no means only cotton, or Lancashire, or
even textiles, and cotton lost its primacy within it after a couple of generations. Yet cotton
was the pacemaker of industrial change, and the basis of the first regions which could bot
have existed but for industrialization, and which expressed a new firm of society,
industrial capitalism, based on a new form of production, the ‘factory’. Other towns were
smoky and filled with steam-engines in 1830, though not to anything like the same extent as
the cotton towns—in 1838 Manchester and Salford possessed almost three times as much
steampower as Birmingham—but they were not towns dominated by factories until the
second half of the century, if then.
Languedoc Canal connects the Mediterranean with the Bay of Biscay. 240 miles long, with 100 locks, 3 major aqueducts, 1 tunnel, and a summit reservoir. The largest canal project between Roman times and the nineteenth century. Jethro Tull’s mechanical (seed) sower permits large-scale planting in rows, for easier cultivation between the rows. Abraham Darby uses coke to smelt iron ore, replacing wood and charcoal as fuel. Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. Able to keep deep coal mines clear of water. First significant power source other than wind and water. John Kay’s flying shuttle. First threshing machine. James Brindley’s Bridgewater Canal opens. Barges carry coal from Worsley to Manchester. James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny, automating weaving the warp (in the weaving of cloth). Arkwright’s "water" (powered) frame automates the weft. Bridgewater Canal extended to the Mersey, thus connecting with Liverpool. Its success kicks off extensive canal construction ("canal mania"). Watt’s first efficient steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen. Grand Trunk Canal establishes a cross-England route connecting the Mersey to the Trent and connecting the industrial Midlands to the ports of Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull. First steam powered mills. Crompton’s "mule" combines Hargreaves’ and Arkwright’s machines, fully automating the weaving process. Arkwright puts a Watt engine in the Albion cotton mill, Blackfriars Bridge, London. Cartwright builds a power loom. Thames-Severn Canal links the Thames to the Bristol Channel. William Murdock (James Watt’s assistant) lights his home with coal gas. Eli Whitney develops his cotton gin (a device to clean raw cotton). Thomas Telford builds his two great iron aqueducts, over the Dee and the Cierog valleys. Robert Trevithick demonstrates a steam locomotive. Caledonian Ship Canal cuts clear across Scotland via the Great Glen. Robert Fulton’s Clermont first successful steamboat. Luddite riots: laborers attack factories and break up the machines they fear will replace them. Faraday demonstrates electro-magnetic rotation, the principle of the electric motor. Marc Brunel invents a tunnelling shield, making subaqueous tunnelling possible. Brunel builds the first subaqueous tunnel, under the Thames. Berkeley Ship Canal connects Sharpness (on the Severn) to Gloucester. Manchester–Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service. Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines. Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine--the forerunner of the computer. Fox Talbot produces photographs. Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code. Great Western--first ocean-going steamship. Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype. Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper. Great Britain--first large, iron, screw-propelled steamship. Commercial use of Morse’s telegraph (Baltimore to Washington). Pneumatic tire patented First telegraph cable laid under the Channel. Monier develops reinforced concrete. Petrol (gasoline) refining first used. Natural Science Honours School established at Oxford. Singer invents first practical sewing machine. Natural Sciences Tripos at Cambridge. Bessemer invents steel converter. Regius Chair of Technology founded at Edinburgh. W.H. Perkin produces aniline dyes, permitting brightly colored cottons. Pasteur experiments with fermentation. First Trans-Atlantic Cable completed Cathode rays discovered. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species. Edwin Drake strikes oil in Pennsylvania. Etienne Lenoir demonstrates the first successful gasoline engine. Science degrees at University of London. Siemens-Martin open hearth process (along with the Bessemer converter) makes steel available in bulk. Steel begins to replace iron in building: steel framing and reinforced concrete make possible "curtain-wall" architecture--i.e., the skyscraper. Alfred Nobel produces dynamite, the first high explosive which can be safely handled. Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter. James Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation Bell invents the telephone. Edison invents the phonograph. Microphone invented. Edison invents the incandescent lamp.