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Atatürk'ün kişiliği hakkında İngilizce soru cevap örnekleri verir misiniz?

En İyi Cevap Var Güncelleme: 25 Aralık 2011 Gösterim: 8.395 Cevap: 4
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3 Aralık 2008       Mesaj #1
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ya atatürk ün küşüliği hakkında ingilizce soru cevağ verirmisiniz
EN İYİ CEVABI fadedliver verdi
Bu doğrultuda soru cevap hazırlayabilirsiniz.

Reklamlar
Atatürk, the founder and the first President of the Turkish Republic, was born in Salonika in 1881. He was given the name Mustafa. His parents were Ali Riza Efendi and Zübeyde Hanim. Mustafa lost his father, a timber merchant, in early childhood and it was his mother who brought him up. For his primary education he went to the school of Semsi Efendi in Salonika, the first private school in the town to provide a modern education. But when his father died, Mustafa and his mother went to live with his uncle in the country and he had to leave this school. Mustafa found himself sharing his uncle's country life. He was given jobs to do and had to work as a watchman on the farm as well as sharing in the other work. Life continued like this for a time until his mother began to worry about his lack of schooling. It was finally decided that he should live with his mother's sister in Salonika and go to school there.
He entered the State Preparatory School (Mulkiye Idadisi) in Salonika. One of the masters at the school was a man called Kaymak Hafiz. One day, during one of his lessons, Mustafa had a fight with another boy. Kaymak Hafiz took hold of Mustafa and beat him so hard that he was covered with bruises. His aunt, who was in any case opposed to his going to the school, immediately took him away. Mustafa wanted to enter a military school. However, the idea of his becoming a soldier frightened his mother, who by this time had returned to Salonika, and she refused to allow him to go. So when the entrance exams were held, he went secretly to the military school and sat the examinations without letting her know. The first his mother knew about it was when he told her he had passed. She was faced with a faith accomplice. The year was 1893. At this new school, Mustafa developed a special interest in mathematics, and he used to attempt problems well in advance of those taught in class. He made a habit of submitting written questions to the teacher, who then replied to them, also in writing. The teacher's name was Mustafa and one day he said to little Mustafa, his pupil: "Look here, my son. Your name is Mustafa and so is mine. There must be something to distinguish between us. Why don't you call yourself 'Mustafa Kemal' from now on?" This suggestion was adopted and little Mustafa became 'Mustafa Kemal'. 'Kemal' means 'perfection'.

In 1895, after finishing at the Military Middle School in Salonika, Mustafa Kemal went on to the Military High School (Askeri Idadisi) in Monastir. There, too, he found the math lessons very easy, but he was behind in French. The French master took a great deal of trouble with him, while often being very critical. This criticism stung Mustafa Kemal and, during his first leave at home, he decided to remedy the situation by attending a private class in a school run by a French religious order in Salonika. After three months at this school, his French was greatly improved.

As a result of his newly-acquired proficiency in French he began to read the works of Voltaire, Rousseau and the French political philosophers. His political awareness was heightened by the fact that Monastir was the most important military centre in Macedonia at a time when Greeks, Serbs and Bulgars were fighting to break away from Ottoman rule. Mustafa Kemal became an ardent patriot and on one occasion he and a friend ran away from school in a short-lived attempt to volunteer for the army which ended when they were recognised and had to return to the school.

In 1899 Mustafa Kemal went to Istanbul to enter the infantry class at the Military Academy. He made friends with a fellow cadet, Ali Fuad, the son of a retired general, and together they explored Istanbul in their spare time. During this period Mustafa Kemal's political ideas continued to develop. The Sultan, Abdulhamid II, had dissolved the parliament and was ruling as a despot. He saw the forces of modernisation and reform as a threat not only to his power but also to his personal safety. He had shut himself in behind the high walls of his palace, trusting nobody, and set up a huge network of secret agents. The 'Tanzimat' decrees issued during the reigns of the previous two Sultans, which had brought in Western reforms confirming the rights of subjects and the obligations of the sovereign, were abandoned in favour of a policy of ruthless suppression. Among the many banned books were the works of the Turkish nationalist writer Namik Kemal; it was these 'subversive' books that Mustafa Kemal read secretly at night in his dormitory.

When he went on to the Staff College as a lieutenant in 1902, Mustafa Kemal and some of his fellow-cadets formed a secret society and started writing a newspaper by hand in which they attacked the inefficiency and corruption of the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan's spies reported this to the Palace and the director of the college was ordered to take steps to stop this revolutionary activity. One day while Mustafa Kemal and his friends were writing an issue of their newspaper in the veterinary school, the director walked in. Wishing to avoid trouble and in any case half-sympathetic to their cause, he pretended not to have seen what they were doing
t was at this time that Mustafa Kemal first became interested in guerilla warfare. One day in class he asked his classmates to consider the tactical problems of a revolt against the capital staged from the Asian side of the Bosphorus. When he left the Staff College with the rank of captain in 1905, he and a few friends rented a house in the Beyazit district of Istanbul. Here they continued their political discussions and acquired a large library of banned books. These activities came to an end when a cadet who had been expelled from military school and had asked them for a room in the house reported them to the Sultan's secret service.

Now a captain in a cavalry regiment, Mustafa Kemal set about the work of passing on the knowledge of modern techniques of warfare he had learned in the military schools. In doing so his professional attitude to soldiering aroused the suspicion of the officers of the old school, who took the view that so long as an officer did what the Sultan required him to do, he was free to exploit his position for personal advantage. One of the duties of the Fifth Army was to control the Druzes, a warlike people who had only recently been brought under Ottoman rule. On one occasion Mustafa Kemal's regiment was ordered to enter their territory; he himself, however, did not receive orders to go with his regiment. Becoming suspicious, he went along unofficially, only to discover that the real purpose of the expedition was to "collect taxes", or rather to extort money from the Druzes by force; it was the troops' practice on such expeditions to loot the Druze villages if they did not pay up.

Brought face-to-face with such examples of the cynical corruption of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal resolved to take the dangerous step of forming a secret revolutionary society within the ranks of the army. In 1906, he and a few friends founded the "Vatan" (or "Fatherland") Society. Syria, however, was too far away from the hub of the Empire for such a movement to be effective. The place he chose to expand his activities was Salonika. Managing to get himself given leave, he sailed for the place of his birth. After four months he had founded a Macedonian branch of his society among his fellow officers. Its name was changed to 'Vatan ve Hürriyet' ("Fatherland and Freedom"). "Atatürk stands as one of the world's few historic figures who dedicated their lives totally to their nations." When the military bureaucracy caught up with him and it had become known in Istanbul that Mustafa Kemal had left his post, he left Salonika for Jaffa. The same commandant who had originally arranged his leave now found a suitable excuse for his absence (saying he had been sent on a frontier expedition) and the cover-up was complete. He continued to lie low for a while, and in 1907 the army played into his hands by itself transferring him to the General Staff at Salonika.


Here, Mustafa Kemal found that the revolutionary movement had outgrown him; his absence in Syria had deprived him of the opportunity of becoming one of its leaders. His own 'Fatherland and Freedom' Society had been outstripped by a larger organization, the 'Committee for Union and Progress', with which Kemal's society was forced to merge. The leaders of the Committee disliked him, finding him conceited and opinionated, and found pretexts to give him duties that would keep him out of Salonika. Law and order had all but broken down in Macedonia by this time. The Bulgars had a strong underground organization of 'komitajis' — 'committee men' who were in fact terrorists — spreading panic with their bomb outrages. Guerilla bands of Greeks, Serbs and Albanians as well as Bulgars fought with each other and with the Turkish authorities. The Great Powers closed in, hoping to profit from the chaos. Russian and Austrian agents were everywhere in Macedonia. The Turks themselves, watched over by Abdulhamid's army of spies (the telegraph network he installed in Anatolia to keep the country under close surveillance later proved very useful to Mustafa Kemal), felt that they were a persecuted minority in their own country; the Christian minorities at least had foreign governments to protect them. The young officers of the Committee for Union and Progress seemed to provide the only hope.





Abdulhamid, after sending fruitless commissions of enquiry to Salonika, invited a young major named Enver, a Committee member, to come to Istanbul on a promise of promotion. Enver, ignoring the invitation, took to the hills and began to organize a resistance movement, strengthened by members of the garrison at Monastir. The Committee demanded the restoration of the Constitution of 1876. The troops Abdulhamid sent to deal with the situation fraternized with the rebels. Capitulating to their demands, and intimidated by their threat to march on Istanbul, he agreed to restore the Constitution of 1876 and recalled the parliament. Thus the 'Young Turk Revolution' of 1908 was complete. Enver was now the hero of the hour in Salonika. Mustafa Kemal, however, saw him as an upstart whose rise to prominence was no more than undeserved good fortune. The following year, 1909, saw a pro-religious counter-revolution in which Abdulhamid broke the power of the Committee for Union and Progress in Istanbul. The Parliament was again dissolved. Mustafa Kemal organized an army in Macedonia (which he called the 'Action Army'). When the military train carrying this army arrived in Istanbul, the Sultan did not put up any resistance. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his brother and sent into exile. Constitutional government was restored. Mustafa Kemal, who had himself played only a minor part in the events which took place in Istanbul, was posted to Tripoli for a short time. He then returned to Salonika.




In the meantime events in Albania had attracted Mustafa Kemal's interest. An insurrection had broken out there, and Sevket Turgut Pasha was put in charge of the forces sent to deal with it. Failure to suppress the rebellion forced the Minister of War, Mahmut Sevket Pasha, to assume personal command of the operation. He stopped in Salonika on his way to Albania and took Mustafa Kemal into his suite. During the operation against the rebels, Mustafa Kemal acted as Chief of Staff. In Albania he met Colonel Fevzi Bey (later Marshal Fevzi Cakmak) for the first time. The Inspector of the Third Army in Salonika had by this time grown apprehensive of Mustafa Kemal's standing in the town, and on 13th September 1911 he had him transferred to the General Staff in Istanbul. "We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and legal institutions from the bonds which hold a tight grip on us although they are incompatible with the needs of our century." Shortly afterwards, on 30th September, the Italians launched their attack on Tripoli. This provided Mustafa Kemal with the perfect opportunity to display his abilities as a commander. Towards the end of the year, Mustafa Kemal travelled secretly to Tobruk via Egypt and assumed charge of the staff of the local Ottoman commander, Ethem Pasha. He carried out a reconnaissance of the Italian positions near Tobruk and persuaded the Turkish troops to launch an attack. The Battle of Tobruk followed on 9th January 1912, and was the first Ottoman success in that field of operations. Mustafa Kemal stayed in Libya for about a year. While he was still in Libya, the Balkan War broke out. As soon as he received the news he tried to secure a posting to the new theatre of war. While in Egypt on his way to Istanbul, he heard that the Ottoman forces had been defeated at Komanova, that Salonika had fallen and that the Bulgarian army was pressing against the Çatalca lines defending Istanbul. After arriving in Istanbul, he was appointed Director of Operations of the Mediterranean Straits Special Forces to defend the Gallipoli Peninsula (25th November 1912). The Chief of Staff of this force was Fethi Bey (later Fethi Okyar, Deputy for Bolu). A little later Mustafa Kemal was appointed Chief of Staff of this force, which became known as the Bolayir Army Corps. Thus he was able to make an on-the-spot study of the problems of defending the Straits in case of need. ata79 ata80 ata81 ata82 ata83 ata84 At the end of the Balkan War, Mustafa Kemal was appointed Military Attache in Sofia (27th October 1913). He stayed there until the first months of the World War. On 1st March 1914 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant - Colonel. The First World War started on 28th July 1914, and on 29th October the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of Germany and Austria. Mustafa Kemal believed that Türkiye had acted too hastily. He followed operations on all fronts from his office in Sofia, guessing from the very beginning how the war would end. Nevertheless, whether the war was right or wrong, he preferred active service to his duties as military attache in Sofia and applied for a posting to the Office of the Acting Commander-in-Chief, as the Ottoman High Command was known, the Sultan being nominally Commander-in-Chief. Mustafa Kemal was appointed commander of a division which was being formed at Tekirdag (the 19th Division) on 2nd February 1915. It took Mustafa Kemal less than a month to transform this division into a first-class fighting force. On 25th February 1915 the division was moved to Maydos, near Canakkale. ata85 ata86 ata87 ata88 ata89 ata90 An attack on Gallipoli was yet to come. The Turkish forces were already trying to take measures to defend the Straits. The forces of the Entente launched a sea offensive on 18th March 1915. It was repulsed. On 25th April, just before dawn, the ships of the Entente started landing troops in the neighbourhood of Ariburnu and Seddulbahir. As soon as Mustafa Kemal heard of the landings, he moved his troops against the enemy, who were advancing towards the hill of Conkbayiri. When the enemy reached the hill, Mustafa Kemal found himself nearer to the enemy than he was to his own men. He shouted the order to fix bayonets and made his men lie down. As soon as they lay down, so did the enemy. He thus gained time at the critical moment. As the enemy hesitated, the 57th Regiment reached Conkbayiri. Mustafa Kemal threw it into the attack. The battle raged on through the night and the enemy was thrown back to the last ridges overlooking the sea. Mustafa Kemal's conduct of these battles proved his greatness as a commander. He continued to fight both offensive and defensive battles until 19th May. Then the two sides at Ariburnu dug themselves in and began to fight from prepared positions. On 1st June 1915, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of Colonel. "This nation has never lived without independence. We cannot and shall not live without it. Either independence or death." Seeing the failure of all their efforts at Ariburnu and Seddulbahir, the enemy brought in reinforcements and attacked the Turkish right flank along a line from Conkbayiri to Kocacimen. At the same time they landed forces at Anafartalar, where they tried to establish a base for further operations. Landings to the north of Ariburnu and at Anafartalar started on the night between 6th and 7th August. Twenty thousand of the men who were landed at Ariburnu were given the task of capturing Kocacimen. If the enemy had succeeded in establishing himself there, the Ariburnu front, and then in turn the whole of the Gallipoli Peninsula, could have been captured. Mustafa Kemal sent his last reserves to Conkbayiri, which he managed to defend throughout the day of 7th August. The next morning the enemy penetrated to the slopes of Conkbayiri overlooking the sea. A battle fought at close quarters with rifles and grenades followed, but the enemy did not succeed in gaining any further ground. ata91 ata92 ata93 ata94 The Turkish Army Commander formed an Anafartalar Army Group, appointing the Commander of the Saros Army Group, Colonel Fevzi, to lead it. Mustafa Kemal, realizing the seriousness of the danger at Conkbayiri, had drawn the Army Commander's attention to the desperate situation there. The Chief of Staff, Colonel Kazim, asked Mustafa Kemal on the telephone what his suggestions were. Mustafa Kemal explained that the situation was critical, recommending that urgent measures should be taken in view of the enemy's continued landings at Anafartalar, and asking that he himself should be appointed Group Commander. At 21:50 hours on 8th August, he was appointed Commander of the Anafartalar Group and ordered to open an immediate offensive. Mustafa Kemal took personal charge of the offensive and managed to 'throw back superior enemy forces. He prepared for the enemy's next attack. At dawn on 10th August this attack duly came. As the sun rose the enemy began to bombard Conkbayiri from their ships and with their heavy guns on land. Mustafa Kemal was hit by a piece of shrapnel but it was deflected by the watch he carried in his breast pocket. He then led an attack in massed formation by the 8th Division, and forced the enemy out of Conkbayiri. This was the second time he had saved Canakkale. The enemy started a new thrust towards the village of Küçük Anafartalar on 21st August, but they failed to make any progress. Trench warfare followed. Mustafa Kemal guessed that the enemy was going to withdraw, but failed to convince his superiors. His suggestion for an offensive was turned down and he was told that there were no troops to spare. Mustafa Kemal announced his resignation from the command on 10th September 1915, but Liman von Sanders Pasha, who had considerable respect for Mustafa Kemal, had his resignation altered to leave. Mustafa Kemal returned sadly to Istanbul, only to learn ten days later, on 19th December 1915, that the enemy had withdrawn from Canakkale, having lost all hope of success. Mustafa Kemal's heroism at Canakkale and his services to his country soon became known not only to the whole army, but also among the civilian population. It was this reputation which enabled him to carry the entire Turkish nation behind him from the time he landed in Samsun to start the War of Independence until the day of his death. After returning from Canakkale, Mustafa Kemal stayed for some time in Istanbul, then went to Sofia on leave to put his personal affairs in order. While he was there he was appointed to the command of the 16th Army Corps, which had been withdrawn from Canakkale. He took over his new command on 14th January 1916 at Karaagac, Edirne. Mustafa Kemal remained in Edirne until the end of February, when the Office of the Acting Commander-in-Chief transferred the headquarters of the 16th Army Corps to the region of Diyarbakir so that he should take charge of a corps which was to be formed there for service on the Caucasian Front, where the Turks were fighting the Russians. On 27th February 1916 Mustafa Kemal left Edirne for Re'sulayn. On 1st April, while he was travelling to his new post, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. He took up his new duties at Silvan on 14th April.
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fadedliver
Ziyaretçi
3 Aralık 2008       Mesaj #2
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Ziyaretçi
Bu mesaj 'en iyi cevap' seçilmiştir.
Bu doğrultuda soru cevap hazırlayabilirsiniz.

Sponsorlu Bağlantılar
Atatürk, the founder and the first President of the Turkish Republic, was born in Salonika in 1881. He was given the name Mustafa. His parents were Ali Riza Efendi and Zübeyde Hanim. Mustafa lost his father, a timber merchant, in early childhood and it was his mother who brought him up. For his primary education he went to the school of Semsi Efendi in Salonika, the first private school in the town to provide a modern education. But when his father died, Mustafa and his mother went to live with his uncle in the country and he had to leave this school. Mustafa found himself sharing his uncle's country life. He was given jobs to do and had to work as a watchman on the farm as well as sharing in the other work. Life continued like this for a time until his mother began to worry about his lack of schooling. It was finally decided that he should live with his mother's sister in Salonika and go to school there.
He entered the State Preparatory School (Mulkiye Idadisi) in Salonika. One of the masters at the school was a man called Kaymak Hafiz. One day, during one of his lessons, Mustafa had a fight with another boy. Kaymak Hafiz took hold of Mustafa and beat him so hard that he was covered with bruises. His aunt, who was in any case opposed to his going to the school, immediately took him away. Mustafa wanted to enter a military school. However, the idea of his becoming a soldier frightened his mother, who by this time had returned to Salonika, and she refused to allow him to go. So when the entrance exams were held, he went secretly to the military school and sat the examinations without letting her know. The first his mother knew about it was when he told her he had passed. She was faced with a faith accomplice. The year was 1893. At this new school, Mustafa developed a special interest in mathematics, and he used to attempt problems well in advance of those taught in class. He made a habit of submitting written questions to the teacher, who then replied to them, also in writing. The teacher's name was Mustafa and one day he said to little Mustafa, his pupil: "Look here, my son. Your name is Mustafa and so is mine. There must be something to distinguish between us. Why don't you call yourself 'Mustafa Kemal' from now on?" This suggestion was adopted and little Mustafa became 'Mustafa Kemal'. 'Kemal' means 'perfection'.

In 1895, after finishing at the Military Middle School in Salonika, Mustafa Kemal went on to the Military High School (Askeri Idadisi) in Monastir. There, too, he found the math lessons very easy, but he was behind in French. The French master took a great deal of trouble with him, while often being very critical. This criticism stung Mustafa Kemal and, during his first leave at home, he decided to remedy the situation by attending a private class in a school run by a French religious order in Salonika. After three months at this school, his French was greatly improved.

As a result of his newly-acquired proficiency in French he began to read the works of Voltaire, Rousseau and the French political philosophers. His political awareness was heightened by the fact that Monastir was the most important military centre in Macedonia at a time when Greeks, Serbs and Bulgars were fighting to break away from Ottoman rule. Mustafa Kemal became an ardent patriot and on one occasion he and a friend ran away from school in a short-lived attempt to volunteer for the army which ended when they were recognised and had to return to the school.

In 1899 Mustafa Kemal went to Istanbul to enter the infantry class at the Military Academy. He made friends with a fellow cadet, Ali Fuad, the son of a retired general, and together they explored Istanbul in their spare time. During this period Mustafa Kemal's political ideas continued to develop. The Sultan, Abdulhamid II, had dissolved the parliament and was ruling as a despot. He saw the forces of modernisation and reform as a threat not only to his power but also to his personal safety. He had shut himself in behind the high walls of his palace, trusting nobody, and set up a huge network of secret agents. The 'Tanzimat' decrees issued during the reigns of the previous two Sultans, which had brought in Western reforms confirming the rights of subjects and the obligations of the sovereign, were abandoned in favour of a policy of ruthless suppression. Among the many banned books were the works of the Turkish nationalist writer Namik Kemal; it was these 'subversive' books that Mustafa Kemal read secretly at night in his dormitory.

When he went on to the Staff College as a lieutenant in 1902, Mustafa Kemal and some of his fellow-cadets formed a secret society and started writing a newspaper by hand in which they attacked the inefficiency and corruption of the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan's spies reported this to the Palace and the director of the college was ordered to take steps to stop this revolutionary activity. One day while Mustafa Kemal and his friends were writing an issue of their newspaper in the veterinary school, the director walked in. Wishing to avoid trouble and in any case half-sympathetic to their cause, he pretended not to have seen what they were doing
t was at this time that Mustafa Kemal first became interested in guerilla warfare. One day in class he asked his classmates to consider the tactical problems of a revolt against the capital staged from the Asian side of the Bosphorus. When he left the Staff College with the rank of captain in 1905, he and a few friends rented a house in the Beyazit district of Istanbul. Here they continued their political discussions and acquired a large library of banned books. These activities came to an end when a cadet who had been expelled from military school and had asked them for a room in the house reported them to the Sultan's secret service.

Now a captain in a cavalry regiment, Mustafa Kemal set about the work of passing on the knowledge of modern techniques of warfare he had learned in the military schools. In doing so his professional attitude to soldiering aroused the suspicion of the officers of the old school, who took the view that so long as an officer did what the Sultan required him to do, he was free to exploit his position for personal advantage. One of the duties of the Fifth Army was to control the Druzes, a warlike people who had only recently been brought under Ottoman rule. On one occasion Mustafa Kemal's regiment was ordered to enter their territory; he himself, however, did not receive orders to go with his regiment. Becoming suspicious, he went along unofficially, only to discover that the real purpose of the expedition was to "collect taxes", or rather to extort money from the Druzes by force; it was the troops' practice on such expeditions to loot the Druze villages if they did not pay up.

Brought face-to-face with such examples of the cynical corruption of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal resolved to take the dangerous step of forming a secret revolutionary society within the ranks of the army. In 1906, he and a few friends founded the "Vatan" (or "Fatherland") Society. Syria, however, was too far away from the hub of the Empire for such a movement to be effective. The place he chose to expand his activities was Salonika. Managing to get himself given leave, he sailed for the place of his birth. After four months he had founded a Macedonian branch of his society among his fellow officers. Its name was changed to 'Vatan ve Hürriyet' ("Fatherland and Freedom"). "Atatürk stands as one of the world's few historic figures who dedicated their lives totally to their nations." When the military bureaucracy caught up with him and it had become known in Istanbul that Mustafa Kemal had left his post, he left Salonika for Jaffa. The same commandant who had originally arranged his leave now found a suitable excuse for his absence (saying he had been sent on a frontier expedition) and the cover-up was complete. He continued to lie low for a while, and in 1907 the army played into his hands by itself transferring him to the General Staff at Salonika.


Here, Mustafa Kemal found that the revolutionary movement had outgrown him; his absence in Syria had deprived him of the opportunity of becoming one of its leaders. His own 'Fatherland and Freedom' Society had been outstripped by a larger organization, the 'Committee for Union and Progress', with which Kemal's society was forced to merge. The leaders of the Committee disliked him, finding him conceited and opinionated, and found pretexts to give him duties that would keep him out of Salonika. Law and order had all but broken down in Macedonia by this time. The Bulgars had a strong underground organization of 'komitajis' — 'committee men' who were in fact terrorists — spreading panic with their bomb outrages. Guerilla bands of Greeks, Serbs and Albanians as well as Bulgars fought with each other and with the Turkish authorities. The Great Powers closed in, hoping to profit from the chaos. Russian and Austrian agents were everywhere in Macedonia. The Turks themselves, watched over by Abdulhamid's army of spies (the telegraph network he installed in Anatolia to keep the country under close surveillance later proved very useful to Mustafa Kemal), felt that they were a persecuted minority in their own country; the Christian minorities at least had foreign governments to protect them. The young officers of the Committee for Union and Progress seemed to provide the only hope.





Abdulhamid, after sending fruitless commissions of enquiry to Salonika, invited a young major named Enver, a Committee member, to come to Istanbul on a promise of promotion. Enver, ignoring the invitation, took to the hills and began to organize a resistance movement, strengthened by members of the garrison at Monastir. The Committee demanded the restoration of the Constitution of 1876. The troops Abdulhamid sent to deal with the situation fraternized with the rebels. Capitulating to their demands, and intimidated by their threat to march on Istanbul, he agreed to restore the Constitution of 1876 and recalled the parliament. Thus the 'Young Turk Revolution' of 1908 was complete. Enver was now the hero of the hour in Salonika. Mustafa Kemal, however, saw him as an upstart whose rise to prominence was no more than undeserved good fortune. The following year, 1909, saw a pro-religious counter-revolution in which Abdulhamid broke the power of the Committee for Union and Progress in Istanbul. The Parliament was again dissolved. Mustafa Kemal organized an army in Macedonia (which he called the 'Action Army'). When the military train carrying this army arrived in Istanbul, the Sultan did not put up any resistance. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his brother and sent into exile. Constitutional government was restored. Mustafa Kemal, who had himself played only a minor part in the events which took place in Istanbul, was posted to Tripoli for a short time. He then returned to Salonika.




In the meantime events in Albania had attracted Mustafa Kemal's interest. An insurrection had broken out there, and Sevket Turgut Pasha was put in charge of the forces sent to deal with it. Failure to suppress the rebellion forced the Minister of War, Mahmut Sevket Pasha, to assume personal command of the operation. He stopped in Salonika on his way to Albania and took Mustafa Kemal into his suite. During the operation against the rebels, Mustafa Kemal acted as Chief of Staff. In Albania he met Colonel Fevzi Bey (later Marshal Fevzi Cakmak) for the first time. The Inspector of the Third Army in Salonika had by this time grown apprehensive of Mustafa Kemal's standing in the town, and on 13th September 1911 he had him transferred to the General Staff in Istanbul. "We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and legal institutions from the bonds which hold a tight grip on us although they are incompatible with the needs of our century." Shortly afterwards, on 30th September, the Italians launched their attack on Tripoli. This provided Mustafa Kemal with the perfect opportunity to display his abilities as a commander. Towards the end of the year, Mustafa Kemal travelled secretly to Tobruk via Egypt and assumed charge of the staff of the local Ottoman commander, Ethem Pasha. He carried out a reconnaissance of the Italian positions near Tobruk and persuaded the Turkish troops to launch an attack. The Battle of Tobruk followed on 9th January 1912, and was the first Ottoman success in that field of operations. Mustafa Kemal stayed in Libya for about a year. While he was still in Libya, the Balkan War broke out. As soon as he received the news he tried to secure a posting to the new theatre of war. While in Egypt on his way to Istanbul, he heard that the Ottoman forces had been defeated at Komanova, that Salonika had fallen and that the Bulgarian army was pressing against the Çatalca lines defending Istanbul. After arriving in Istanbul, he was appointed Director of Operations of the Mediterranean Straits Special Forces to defend the Gallipoli Peninsula (25th November 1912). The Chief of Staff of this force was Fethi Bey (later Fethi Okyar, Deputy for Bolu). A little later Mustafa Kemal was appointed Chief of Staff of this force, which became known as the Bolayir Army Corps. Thus he was able to make an on-the-spot study of the problems of defending the Straits in case of need. ata79 ata80 ata81 ata82 ata83 ata84 At the end of the Balkan War, Mustafa Kemal was appointed Military Attache in Sofia (27th October 1913). He stayed there until the first months of the World War. On 1st March 1914 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant - Colonel. The First World War started on 28th July 1914, and on 29th October the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of Germany and Austria. Mustafa Kemal believed that Türkiye had acted too hastily. He followed operations on all fronts from his office in Sofia, guessing from the very beginning how the war would end. Nevertheless, whether the war was right or wrong, he preferred active service to his duties as military attache in Sofia and applied for a posting to the Office of the Acting Commander-in-Chief, as the Ottoman High Command was known, the Sultan being nominally Commander-in-Chief. Mustafa Kemal was appointed commander of a division which was being formed at Tekirdag (the 19th Division) on 2nd February 1915. It took Mustafa Kemal less than a month to transform this division into a first-class fighting force. On 25th February 1915 the division was moved to Maydos, near Canakkale. ata85 ata86 ata87 ata88 ata89 ata90 An attack on Gallipoli was yet to come. The Turkish forces were already trying to take measures to defend the Straits. The forces of the Entente launched a sea offensive on 18th March 1915. It was repulsed. On 25th April, just before dawn, the ships of the Entente started landing troops in the neighbourhood of Ariburnu and Seddulbahir. As soon as Mustafa Kemal heard of the landings, he moved his troops against the enemy, who were advancing towards the hill of Conkbayiri. When the enemy reached the hill, Mustafa Kemal found himself nearer to the enemy than he was to his own men. He shouted the order to fix bayonets and made his men lie down. As soon as they lay down, so did the enemy. He thus gained time at the critical moment. As the enemy hesitated, the 57th Regiment reached Conkbayiri. Mustafa Kemal threw it into the attack. The battle raged on through the night and the enemy was thrown back to the last ridges overlooking the sea. Mustafa Kemal's conduct of these battles proved his greatness as a commander. He continued to fight both offensive and defensive battles until 19th May. Then the two sides at Ariburnu dug themselves in and began to fight from prepared positions. On 1st June 1915, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of Colonel. "This nation has never lived without independence. We cannot and shall not live without it. Either independence or death." Seeing the failure of all their efforts at Ariburnu and Seddulbahir, the enemy brought in reinforcements and attacked the Turkish right flank along a line from Conkbayiri to Kocacimen. At the same time they landed forces at Anafartalar, where they tried to establish a base for further operations. Landings to the north of Ariburnu and at Anafartalar started on the night between 6th and 7th August. Twenty thousand of the men who were landed at Ariburnu were given the task of capturing Kocacimen. If the enemy had succeeded in establishing himself there, the Ariburnu front, and then in turn the whole of the Gallipoli Peninsula, could have been captured. Mustafa Kemal sent his last reserves to Conkbayiri, which he managed to defend throughout the day of 7th August. The next morning the enemy penetrated to the slopes of Conkbayiri overlooking the sea. A battle fought at close quarters with rifles and grenades followed, but the enemy did not succeed in gaining any further ground. ata91 ata92 ata93 ata94 The Turkish Army Commander formed an Anafartalar Army Group, appointing the Commander of the Saros Army Group, Colonel Fevzi, to lead it. Mustafa Kemal, realizing the seriousness of the danger at Conkbayiri, had drawn the Army Commander's attention to the desperate situation there. The Chief of Staff, Colonel Kazim, asked Mustafa Kemal on the telephone what his suggestions were. Mustafa Kemal explained that the situation was critical, recommending that urgent measures should be taken in view of the enemy's continued landings at Anafartalar, and asking that he himself should be appointed Group Commander. At 21:50 hours on 8th August, he was appointed Commander of the Anafartalar Group and ordered to open an immediate offensive. Mustafa Kemal took personal charge of the offensive and managed to 'throw back superior enemy forces. He prepared for the enemy's next attack. At dawn on 10th August this attack duly came. As the sun rose the enemy began to bombard Conkbayiri from their ships and with their heavy guns on land. Mustafa Kemal was hit by a piece of shrapnel but it was deflected by the watch he carried in his breast pocket. He then led an attack in massed formation by the 8th Division, and forced the enemy out of Conkbayiri. This was the second time he had saved Canakkale. The enemy started a new thrust towards the village of Küçük Anafartalar on 21st August, but they failed to make any progress. Trench warfare followed. Mustafa Kemal guessed that the enemy was going to withdraw, but failed to convince his superiors. His suggestion for an offensive was turned down and he was told that there were no troops to spare. Mustafa Kemal announced his resignation from the command on 10th September 1915, but Liman von Sanders Pasha, who had considerable respect for Mustafa Kemal, had his resignation altered to leave. Mustafa Kemal returned sadly to Istanbul, only to learn ten days later, on 19th December 1915, that the enemy had withdrawn from Canakkale, having lost all hope of success. Mustafa Kemal's heroism at Canakkale and his services to his country soon became known not only to the whole army, but also among the civilian population. It was this reputation which enabled him to carry the entire Turkish nation behind him from the time he landed in Samsun to start the War of Independence until the day of his death. After returning from Canakkale, Mustafa Kemal stayed for some time in Istanbul, then went to Sofia on leave to put his personal affairs in order. While he was there he was appointed to the command of the 16th Army Corps, which had been withdrawn from Canakkale. He took over his new command on 14th January 1916 at Karaagac, Edirne. Mustafa Kemal remained in Edirne until the end of February, when the Office of the Acting Commander-in-Chief transferred the headquarters of the 16th Army Corps to the region of Diyarbakir so that he should take charge of a corps which was to be formed there for service on the Caucasian Front, where the Turks were fighting the Russians. On 27th February 1916 Mustafa Kemal left Edirne for Re'sulayn. On 1st April, while he was travelling to his new post, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. He took up his new duties at Silvan on 14th April.
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8 Mayıs 2011       Mesaj #3
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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, çok yönlü ve üstün kişiliği olan bir liderdir. Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonunda imzalanan Mondros Ateşkes Anlaşması'yla ortaya çıkan tehlikeli durumu ilk olarak görüp milletin dikkatini çeken odur. Mustafa Kemal, Amasya Genelgesi'nde, vatanın bütünlüğünün ve milletin istiklalinin tehlikede olduğunu söyledi. Erzurum Kongresi'nde, milli sınırlar içinde vatanın parçalanmaz bir bütün olduğunu bütün dünyaya ilan etti. Kurtuluş Savaşı'nı bunun için başlattı. Bu konuda hiçbir taviz vermedi. Vatan savunmasını her şeyin üzerinde tuttu. Sakarya Savaşı sırasında "Vatanın her karış toprağı, vatandaşın kanıyla ıslanmadıkça terk olunamaz" diyerek bu konudaki kararlılığını gösterdi. Vatanı için her şeyini feda etmeye hazır olduğunu şu sözü ile açıkça ifade etmiştir: "Yurt toprağı! Sana her şey feda olsun. Kutlu olan sensin. Hepimiz senin için fedaiyiz. Fakat sen Türk Milleti'ni ebedi hayatta yaşatmak için feyizli kalacaksın.".

Mustafa Kemal, vatanı ve milleti için canını feda etmekten kaçınmazdı. Daha Çanakkale savaşları sırasında Anafartalar grubu komutanı iken en ön safta savaştı. Bu savaş sırasında Atatürk'e bir şarapnel parçası isabet etmiş, fakat sağ cebinde bulunan saati kendisini ölümden kurtarmıştı. Sakarya Savaşı sırasında ise atından düşmüş ve kaburga kemikleri kırılmıştı. Buna rağmen cepheden ayrılmamış, savaşı sedye üzerinden yönetmişti.

Mensubu olduğu Türk Milleti'ni sonsuz bir aşkla seven Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, milleti için her türlü zorluğa katlanmış ve kendini ona adamıştır. Onun "Ben, gerektiği zaman en büyük hediyem olmak üzere, Türk milletine canımı vereceğim" sözü, milletini ne kadar çok sevdiğini göstermektedir.



İdealist Yönü

Mustafa Kemal, Sivas'ta düzenlenecek kongre için bulunduğu sıralarda (1919)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, idealist bir liderdi. Onun idealizmi, yüksek vasıf ve kabiliyetlerine inandığı milletinin sonsuz hürriyet ve bağımsızlık aşkından kaynaklanıyordu. Mustafa Kemal'in en büyük ülkülerinden birisi de milli birlik ve beraberlik içerisinde vatanın bölünmez bütünlüğünü sonsuza dek yaşatmaktı.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk'ün en büyük ideali, milli sınırlarımız içinde milli birlik duygusuyla kenetlenmiş uygar bir toplum oluşturmaktı. Vatanı kurtaran, hür ve bağımsız Türkiye idealini gerçekleştiren Mustafa Kemal, yeni Türkiye'yi modernleştirmek amacı ile çağdaş medeniyet idealine yöneltmiştir.

Atatürk'ün en büyük ideallerinden birisi de milletler arasında kardeşçe bir insanlık hayatı meydana getirmekti. İdeallerini gerçekleştirmek için çok çaba harcadı. Bu çabalarına örnek olarak 1934'te imzalanan Balkan Antantı, 1937'de imzalanan Sadabat Paktı gösterilebilir.



İnkılapçılık Yönü
Atatürk'ün inkılapçılığı, akıl ve mantığın toplumsal gelişmeye egemen kılınması esasına dayanır. Onun şu sözü akıl ve mantığa verdiği değeri en güzel şekilde ifade eder: "Bizim akıl, mantık ve zeka ile hareket etmek en büyük özelliğimizdir. Bütün hayatımızı dolduran olaylar bu gerçeğin delilidir.".


Mustafa Kemal, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ve Salih Bozok (1936)
Atatürk'ün inkılapçılığı, akıl ve mantığın toplumsal gelişmeye egemen kılınması esasına dayanır. Onun şu sözü akıl ve mantığa verdiği değeri en güzel şekilde ifade eder: "Bizim akıl, mantık ve zeka ile hareket etmek en büyük özelliğimizdir. Bütün hayatımızı dolduran olaylar bu gerçeğin delilidir".

Mustafa Kemal'in olaylara yaklaşımı hep mantıklı ve gerçekçi olmuştur. Milletine hep hakikatleri söylemiş ve bunu tavsiye etmiştir. "Milleti aklımızın ermediği, yapmak kudret ve kabiliyetini kendimizde görmediğimiz hususlar hakkında kandırarak geçici teveccühler elde etmeye tenezzül etmeyiz" sözü çok anlamlıdır. O, akıl ve bilime çok önem verirdi. Gerçeğe akıl ve bilim yoluyla ulaşılacağına inanan Atatürk, "Dünyada her şey için, medeniyet için, hayat için, muvaffakiyet için en hakiki mürşit ilimdir, fendir" sözü ile bunu en güzel şekilde açıklamıştır.

Mustafa Kemal, yaratıcı düşünceye sahip bir liderdi. Türk Milleti'ni Kurtuluş Savaşı'na hazırlarken düşmanı yurttan atmak için savaşmak gerektiğine halkını inandırmakla işe başladı. Yapacağı işlerin planını en ince ayrıntılarına kadar tespit edip bunları uygulamak için değişik yöntemler denedi. Sakarya Savaşı öncesinde, ülkenin kaynaklarından en verimli şekilde yararlanılmasını sağlayarak ordumuzun ihtiyaçlarını karşıladı.

Atatürk, bütün inkılaplarını gerçekleştirmeden önce, kamuoyunu hazırlamaya, millete inkılapların gerekliliğini anlatmaya büyük bir özen göstermiştir. Ona göre: "Milleti hazırlamadan inkılaplar yapılamaz". Atatürk, yurt gezilerinde halkla konuşmalar yaparak bunu gerçekleştirmiştir.

Gerek Kurtuluş Savaşı'mızın başarıyla sonuçlanması, gerek gerçekleştirilen inkılaplarla, Türkiye'nin çağdaşlaştırılması onun dehasının bir eseridir. Başarılı olmanın sırlarından birisi de sabır ve disiplindir. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, her engeli sabır ve disiplin ile aşıp Kurtuluş Savaşı'nı başarıya ulaştıran bir liderdir.

O, meseleler karşısında önce düşünür, gerekli araştırmayı yapar, tartışır, kararını ondan sonra verirdi. Verdiği kararı uygulamaya koyarken uygun zamanı beklerdi. Zamanlamaya çok önem verirdi.

Samsun'a çıkmadan çok önce, millet egemenliğine dayanan bağımsız yeni bir Türk devleti kurmayı düşünmüştü. Bu fikrini, o zaman açıklamadı. Samsun'a çıktıktan bir süre sonra vatanın kurtuluşu ile ilgili fikirlerini uygulamaya başladı. Kongreler topladı. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi'ni açtı. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi açıldığı zaman, saltanatı kaldırıp cumhuriyet yönetimini kurmayı düşünüyordu. Fakat mecliste saltanat yanlıları olduğundan zamanlamayı uygun görmemişti. Ancak Kurtuluş Savaşı başarıya ulaştıktan sonra açılan ikinci meclis döneminde Atatürk'ün önderliğinde saltanat kaldırılıp cumhuriyet ilan edilmiştir.

Atatürk, Milli Mücadele'nin kazanılmasından sonra yaptığı inkılapları çok önceden planlamıştı. Ancak, bunları uygulayacak ortam sağlanıncaya kadar büyük bir sabırla bekledi ve tam bir disiplin ile düşündüklerini gerçekleştirmeyi başardı.



İleri Görüşlü Yönü

Mustafa Kemal, Çanakkale Savaşı sırasında Siperde mevziileri kontrol ederken (1915)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, daha Birinci Dünya Savaşı devam ederken Osmanlı Devleti'nin hızla felakete doğru sürüklendiğini görüp çareler aramaya başlamıştır. Ülkemizin içinde bulunduğu durumu en doğru şekilde tespit etmiş ve ilerisi için en doğru kararları almıştır.

Atatürk, ileri görüşlü bir devlet adamıdır. Atatürk'ün 1932'de Amerikalı General Mc. Arthur'la yaptığı bir konuşma, bunu en iyi şekilde ortaya koymaktadır. Atatürk bu konuşmasında; Avrupa'da Almanya'nın Versailles Antlaşması'nı ortadan kaldırmaya çalışacağını söylemiştir. Avrupa'da savaş çıkarsa, bundan Bolşevikler'in yararlanacağını; Sovyet Rusya'nın yalnız Avrupa'yı değil, Asya'yı da tehdit eden başlıca kuvvet halini alacağını belirterek, İkinci Dünya Savaşı ve sonrasındaki gelişmeleri önceden görebilmiştir.

Atatürk'ün gençlere söylediği "Yolunda yürüyen bir yolcunun yalnız ufku görmesi kafi değildir. Muhakkak ufkun ötesini de görmesi ve bilmesi lazımdır." sözü, onun ileri görüşlü bir lider olduğunu açıkça ortaya koymaktadır.



Açık sözlülüğü

Mustafa Kemal, Kocaeli-İzmit Yarıca'da (1923)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, doğru bildiği şeyleri açıkça söylemekten çekinmezdi. Şu sözleri bunun en güzel örneğidir: "Ben düşündüklerimi sevdiklerime olduğu gibi söylerim. Aynı zamanda lüzumu olmayan bir sırrı kalbimde taşımak iktidarında olmayan bir adamım. Çünkü ben bir halk adamıyım. Ben düşündüklerimi daima halkın huzurunda söylemeliyim.". Büyük adamları ancak büyük milletler yetiştirir. Toplumların büyük adamlara ihtiyacı en çok bunalımlı dönemlerde ortaya çıkar. Toplumları, bunalımlı dönemlerden ancak büyük liderler kurtarır. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, bu özellikleri taşıyan çok yönlü bir liderdir. O, Milli Mücadele'nin önderi, Türk inkılabının hazırlayıcısıdır. Ayrıca birleştirici ve toplayıcı bir lider, büyük bir asker ve teşkilatçı bir devlet adamıdır. Bütün bu yönleriyle çağa damgasını vuran bir dahidir.



Eğitim ve Öğretime Bakış Açısı

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, İzmir Erkek Lisesi'nde öğrencilerle (1931)
Atatürk, eğitimi sosyal ve kültürel kalkınmanın en etkili araçlardan biri olarak görmüştür. Kurtuluş Savaşı kazanıldıktan sonra yeni devletin varlığını sürdürebilmesi için çağdaş eğitim metotlarıyla yetiştirilecek bir nesle ihtiyaç vardı. Bu sebeple eğitim konusuna büyük bir önem verdi. Kurtuluş Savaşı'ndan sonra kendisine sorulan "işte memleketi kurtardınız, şimdi ne yapmak istersiniz?" sorusuna Atatürk: "Maarif vekili olarak milli irfanı yükseltmeye çalışmak, en büyük emelimdir." cevabını verir. Türk Milleti'nin aydınlık yarınları için elinde tebeşir, kara tahta başına geçerek Türk Milleti'ne okuma-yazma öğreten Atatürk, milleti tarafından başöğretmenliğe layık görüldü. O, maarif vekili olmadı ama modern bir eğitim politikasının esaslarını belirleyip eğitim alanında büyük inkılaplar yaptı. Öğretim programlarının hazırlanmasıyla ilgili komisyonları yönetti, ders kitabı yazdı, kürsüye çıkıp ders verdi. Milletin eğiticisi oldu. Atatürk, eğitimin toplumun ihtiyaçlarına cevap vermesi ve çağın gereklerine uygun olması gerektiğini belirtmiştir.



Sanata Bakış Açısı

Mustafa Kemal, Ankarada sanat galerisini gezerken (1934)
Atatürk, Türk milletinin manevi ihtiyaçlarının da karşılanması gerektiğini biliyor ve bu nedenle kültürel kalkınmaya büyük önem veriyordu. Atatürk, Türk kültür ve sanatını dünyaya tanıtmak için çok çalıştı. Bu konuda araştırmalar yapılmasını, sergiler açılmasını ve kültürle ilgili kongreler düzenlenmesini teşvik etti. Sanat ve sanatçılar hakkında takdir ve teşvik edici sözler söyledi. Bunlardan bazıları: "Sanatsız kalan bir milletin hayat damarlarından biri kopmuş demektir.", "Hepiniz mebus olabilirsiniz, vekil olabilirsiniz, hatta cumhurbaşkanı olabilirsiniz, fakat bir sanatkar olamazsınız.", "Bir millet, sanat ve sanatkardan mahrum ise tam bir hayata malik olamaz.". Atatürk, sanatçı yetiştiren kurumlar açtı. Çağdaş Türk sanatını geliştirmek amacıyla Avrupa'ya resim, heykel ve müzik öğrenimi için gençler gönderdi. Bu durum, onun sanata ve sanatçıya ne kadar önem verdiğini gösterir.



Yönetici ve İdareci Kişiliği
İyi bir yönetici, milletinin huzur ve saadetini sağlamak için çalışır. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, bütün hayatı boyunca bunu yapmaya çalıştı. Milleti için çalışmayı bir görev saydı. "Millete efendilik yoktur. Hadimlik vardır. Bu millete hizmet eden, onun efendisi olur" sözü ile yöneticilerde bulunması gereken özelliği belirtmiştir. Mustafa Kemal, hayatı boyunca Türk devletinin ve milletinin çıkarlarım kendi çıkarlarının üstünde tutan, ender devlet adamlarından birisidir. Savaştaki kahramanlığı kadar, devlet kurup yönetmedeki ustalığı, ileri görüşlülüğü ve barışseverliği ile Atatürk, tarihte eşine az rastlanan bir yöneticidir.


Mustafa Kemal, Ankarada sanat galerisini gezerken (1934)
Atatürk'ün birleştirici ve bütünleştirici özelliği sayesinde, Milli Mücadele başarıya ulaşmıştır. Atatürk, Milli Mücadele'nin karanlık günlerinde, değişik fikirlere sahip insanları bir mecliste, kendi etrafında toplamayı başardı. Kısacası, Atatürk'süz Milli Mücadele düşünülemezdi. Atatürk'ün birleştirici gücü, kişisel özelliğinden ve karakterinden geliyordu. O, yalnız askerlerin değil, sivil halkın da güvenini kazanmıştı.

Atatürk'ün bu üstün meziyetleri, sıkıntı ve bunalım içinde bulunan insanların, ona sevgi ve saygıyla bağlanmasını sağladı. Atatürk, tarihte büyük devletler kuran ve yüksek bir medeniyet meydana getirmiş olan Türk Milleti'nin büyüklüğüne inanan ve bununla gurur duyan bir insandı. Atatürk; kahramanlık, vatan sevgisi, çalışkanlık, bilim ve sanata önem verme gibi değerlerin, Türklüğün yüksek vasıflarından olduğunu ifade etmiştir. O, milletinin bu özelliklerini her fırsatta dile getirip insanlık ailesi içinde layık olduğu yeri almasına çalıştı. Milletimizin yüksek karakteri, çalışkanlığı, zekası ve ilme bağlılığı ile milli birlik ve beraberlik duygusunu geliştirmeyi başlıca ilke kabul etti. Ona göre: "... Türklüğün unutulmuş büyük medeni vasfı ve büyük medeni kabiliyeti, bundan sonraki gelişmesi ile geleceğin yüksek medeniyet ufkundan yeni bir güneş gibi doğacaktır.".

Mondros Ateşkes Anlaşması'ndan sonra başlayan işgal günlerinde, toplumu olaylar karşısında yönlendirecek bir öndere ihtiyaç vardı. İşte o karanlık günlerde Atatürk, milletine rehber oldu. Anadolu'ya geçerek kongreler topladı. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi'nin açılmasını sağladı. Milli Mücadele, Atatürk'ün önderliğinde başarıya ulaştı. Türk Milleti'nin her alanda çağdaşlaşmasını hedef alan inkılaplar onun önderliğinde gerçekleşti. O'nun ilke ve inkılapları, Türk milletine günümüzde de rehber olmaya devam etmektedir. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, askeri zaferlerini ve başardığı inkılapları kendisine mal etmemiştir. Büyük eserlerin, ancak büyük milletle başarılabileceğine inanan bir önderdi.

Atatürk'ün, milletine sonsuz bir güveni vardı. Türk milletinin geçmişte olduğu gibi büyük hamleler yapacağına bütün kalbiyle inanmıştı. Şn ve şerefle dolu tarihindeki başarılarına yenilerini ilave edeceğine bütün kalbiyle inanmıştı. O, "Atatürk Zaferleri" denmesinden hoşlanmazdı. "Atatürk İnkılapları" sözünü reddeder, "Türk İnkılabı" sözünün kullanılmasını isterdi. Bütün başarıları milletine mal etmekten zevk duyardı. Mustafa Kemal bir konuşmasında "Milli Mücadele'yi yapan doğrudan doğruya milletin kendisidir, milletin evlatlarıdır." demişti.



Mücadeleci Yönü

Mustafa Kemal, Ankara Dikmen sırtlarında arazide istirhat ederken (1921)
Atatürk, kararlı ve mücadeleci bir liderdi. Güçlükler karşısında yılmayan, ümitsizliğe düşmeyen kişiliği onun Milli Mücadele'nin lideri olmasını sağlamıştır. Samsun'a çıktıktan sonra, Kazım Karabekir Paşaya çektiği bir telgrafta, o günlerdeki ağır durumu belirttikten sonra "Bununla beraber bütün umutlar kaybolmuş değildir. Memleketi bu durumdan ancak Türk milletinin mukavemet azmi kurtarabilir." diyordu. Eskişehir-Kütahya Savaşları'ndan sonra Yunanlılar, Ankara'ya doğru ilerlemeye başladıkları zaman, Mustafa Kemal, Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi tarafından başkomutanlık görevine getirilmişti. Başkomutan olarak yaptığı ilk konuşmasındaki "Milletimizi esir etmek isteyen düşmanları, behemehal (ne yapıp edip) yeneceğimize dair güvenim bir dakika olsun sarsılmamıştır." sözleri onun hiçbir zaman ümitsizliğe yer vermediğini ve mücadelesindeki kararlılığı gösteren başka bir örnektir.



Disiplinli Çalışması
Atatürk, bütün çalışmalarını bir plan dahilinde yapardı. Bir işe karar verdiğinde; bu kararı bütün yönleriyle inceler, en iyi sonucu alacak şekilde uygulamaya geçerdi. Mustafa Kemal, yapacağı inkılapları önceden düşünmüş, kamuoyunu bu değişiklikler konusunda aydınlattıktan sonra inkılaplarını yapmıştır. Kurtuluş Savaşı'nın planını, İstanbul'dan Anadolu'ya geçmeden önce yapmış ve bunu yakın arkadaşlarıyla tartışmıştı. Zamanı geldikçe düşündüklerini uyguladı. Uygulamaya başladıktan sonra hiç taviz vermedi. Bütün hayatı boyunca metotlu çalışmayı hiç bırakmadı.



Hümanist ve Barışçı Yönü
Atatürk, kendi milletini ve bütün insanları samimi duygularla seven, iyi kalpli bir insandı. Bütün milletleri bir vücut, her milleti de bu vücudun bir organı olarak görürdü. Dünyanın herhangi bir yerinde bir rahatsızlık varsa ilgisiz kalamazdı. "İnsanları mesut edecek tek vasıta, onları birbirlerine yaklaştırarak, onlara birbirlerini sevdirerek, karşılıklı maddi ve manevi ihtiyaçlarını karşılamaya yarayan hareket ve enerjidir." derken insanlar için ne kadar iyi duygular beslediğini açıklıyordu.


Mustafa Kemal, Ankara Dikmen sırtlarında arazide istirhat ederken (1921)
Atatürk, kendi milletini ve bütün insanları samimi duygularla seven, iyi kalpli bir insandı. Bütün milletleri bir vücut, her milleti de bu vücudun bir organı olarak görürdü. Dünyanın herhangi bir yerinde bir rahatsızlık varsa ilgisiz kalamazdı. "İnsanları mesut edecek tek vasıta, onları birbirlerine yaklaştırarak, onlara birbirlerini sevdirerek, karşılıklı maddi ve manevi ihtiyaçlarını karşılamaya yarayan hareket ve enerjidir." derken insanlar için ne kadar iyi duygular beslediğini açıklıyordu.

Atatürk, çocukları ve gençleri çok sever, onların en iyi şartlarda yetişip yükselmesini isterdi. Çünkü bir milletin ancak iyi nesiller yetiştirebilirse yükseleceği düşüncesini taşıyordu.

Atatürk, insanlara değer vermiş, insanlığın hizmetinde çalışmayı amaç edinmiştir. Romanya dışişleri bakanı ile yaptığı bir konuşmada insanlık ailesinin yerini ve değerini şu sözlerle belirtmiştir: "İnsan, mensup olduğu milletin varlığını ve mutluluğunu düşündüğü kadar, bütün dünya milletlerinin huzur ve refahını düşünmeli ve kendi milletinin mutluluğuna ne kadar kıymet veriyorsa, bütün dünya milletlerinin mutluluğuna hizmet etmeye elinden geldiği kadar çalışmalıdır. Bütün akıllı adamlar takdir ederler ki bu yolda çalışmakla hiçbir şey kaybedilmez. Çünkü dünya milletlerinin mutluluğuna çalışmak, diğer bir yoldan kendi huzur ve mutluluğunu temine çalışmak demektir".

Atatürk, barışa önem veren bir liderdi. Ona göre barışın bozulmasından bütün dünya ülkeleri ıstırap duymalıydı. Anlaşmazlıkların ortadan kalkması, insanlığın başlıca dileği olmalıydı. Dünyada yalnızca sevgi egemen olmalıydı. Atatürk'ün bu sevgi anlayışının nedeni insana duyduğu saygıdır. Onun "Yurtta sulh, cihanda sulh !" sözü barış idealinin simgesi haline gelmiştir.


(yardım edebildiysem ne mutlu bana!)
The Eniqmatic - avatarı
The Eniqmatic
Ziyaretçi
8 Mayıs 2011       Mesaj #4
The Eniqmatic - avatarı
Ziyaretçi
EVENTS IN ATATÜRK'S LIFE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
1881
Mustafa born in Salonika.
1893
Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name "Kemal" by his teacher.
1895
Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir.
1899
Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul.
1902
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and goes on to the General Staff College.
January 11, 1905
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army, based in Damascus.
October 1906
Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society "Fatherland and Freedom" in Damascus.
September 1907
Mustafa Kemal transferred to Third Army and goes to Salonika.
September 13, 1911
Mustafa Kemal transferred to General Staff in Istanbul.
January 9, 1912
Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya.
November 25, 1912
Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations, Mediterranean Straits Special Forces.
October 27, 1913
Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attache in Sofia.
April 25, 1915
Allies land at Ariburnu (Gallipoli) and Mustafa Kemal stops their progress with his division.
August 9, 1915
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Anafartalar Group.
April 1, 1916
Mustafa Kemal promoted to Brigadier-General.
August 6-7, 1916
Mustafa Kemal takes Bitlis and Mus back from the enemy.
October 31, 1918
Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.
April 30, 1919
Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.
May 16, 1919
Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.
May 19, 1919
Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War of Independence.
July 8, 1919
Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.
July 23, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Erzurum Congress.
September 4, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Sivas Congress.
December 27, 1919
Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Excutive Committee.
April 23, 1920
Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.
May 11, 1920
Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.
August 5, 1921
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander-in-Chief by the Grand National Assembly.
August 23, 1921
The battle of Sakarya begins with Turkish troops led by Mustafa Kemal.
September 19, 1921
The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi.
August 26, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive from the hill of Kocatepe.
August 30, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha wins the battle of Dumlupinar.
September 10, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir.
November 1, 1922
The Grand National Assembly accepts Gazi Mustafa Kemal's proposal to abolish the Sultanate.
January 14, 1923
Mustafa Kemal's mother Zübeyde Hanim dies in Izmir.
October 29, 1923
Proclamation of the Turkish Republic and Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected as the first President.
August 24, 1924
Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat for the first time at Sarayburnu in Istanbul.
August 9, 1928
Gazi Mustafa Kemal speaks at Sarayburnu on the new Turkish Alphabet.
April 12, 1931
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Historical Society.
July 12, 1932
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society.
June 16, 1934
The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk".
November 10, 1938
Atatürk dies at 09:05 in Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul

Bunlar soru degil fakat bunları soru haline getirince yararlı olucağını düşünüyorum..
Misafir - avatarı
Misafir
Ziyaretçi
25 Aralık 2011       Mesaj #5
Misafir - avatarı
Ziyaretçi
Alıntı

ataturkun kisiligi ingilizce ile ilgili daha fazla bilgi istiyorum


Atatürk as a statement
Atatürk was a peerless leader who secured national unity during a national struggle, a legendary commander in the battlefields, a great statesman, and a powerful reformist who changed the appearance of a nation. There is no doubt that he with all his qualities, is one of the greatest men known in the history of humanity . Historians of the world and philosophers agree without hesitation that he had the virtues of heroism and immense humanity at the utmost levels. His obvious superiorities in various perspectives, when compared to well-known personalities of history, are remarkable. Being both a man a of idea and a man of action is his superiority over all other geniuses. He was a leader who merged ideas and action in his personality. Kemalism, which forms the core of his opinions and ideas, is a rational philosophy of life freed from any dogmatic element. This realistic philosophy, which stems from the realities of the land and accepts the guidance of logic and science in case of problems, is the essence of both the Turkish War of Independence and the subsequent Turkish modernization movement.
Atatürk was a man of reality, common sense and delicacy. He always did the best and decided on the most beneficial in whatever he did, and whatever he decided to do. Thanks to his crafty reformism, which anticipates the tendencies of people well and knows how to infiltrate souls; common desires and tendencies easily became national goals . He trusted the high virtues of the Turkish Nation from the beginning to the end of his struggle, and believed that victories of any kind belonged to the nation. He relied on the love of the nation in all of his initiatives. He showed that he was a leader who could drag along the crowds with the help of his powerful personality and his strength of persuasion, which is the result of his anticipation of the truth. His ideas and opinions as the banner of the national resurrection and his immortal achievement had influences beyond the motherland and became a sentimental force for the struggle of independence and freedom of oppressed nations.
When Atatürk was describing the “Turkish Reform” which he created and founded, he said “This reform is a result of patriotism combined with great humanistic ambition. It is to teach children the art of seeing all the beauty and greatness and to feel mercy for all the misery at the same time.” He also regarded the whole world open-heartedly, sincerely and in a friendly manner with as the faithful founder of the reform he created. In fact, Atatürk who inserted national faith to the hearts with his aphorism “Happy is a man who calls himself a Turk!” was the symbol of the ideal and the love of humanity as well. To the foreigners asking “Who are your enemies?”, he replied, “We are nobody’s enemy; we are just the enemy of the enemies of humanity!”. “Atatürk Reform”, which completely has a national characteristic, is also admired by all humanity with regards to its humanistic perspective.
Atatürk as a soldier
Thanks to his abilities that shifted the destiny of a nation in history, Atatürk saved the land from the edge through both military and political victories. There are few men in the history of the world who implemented their ideals despite impossibilities of all kinds, won a national struggle with “Independence or Death!” as the keyword and created a modern state and nation with a completely new identity. The success he had in analyzing the conditions he was in and in removing obstacles constitutes another characteristic of Atatürk. We can say that Atatürk was great not only because he sensed the need for the modernization of the Turkish Nation but also because he showed the shortest possible way to modernization, and finally because he bravely avoided the obstacles getting in the way of modernization. In fact, his title of “Founder of Modern Turkey” comes from this greatness.
The picture he portrayed in his Address to the Turkish Youth at the end of his Great Speech is in fact the snapshot of the country when he started the struggle. Even if one believed that everything was over, and even in the hardest situations, Atatürk was a national hero, who with the help of his achievement, proved to the Turkish Nation that the feeling of trust would never be lost. He became a symbol of this trust.
Atatürk, was a great personality and an unprecedented soldier who…
- said, “A Flag is the symbol of a nation’s independence; and should be respected even if it belongs to your enemy!” when the flag of the enemy was laid in front of him on the day he entered İzmir as the victorious Commander-in-Chief.
- told French General Gouraud, who had lost one of his arms fighting in Çanakkale, pointing out his missing arm, “Your honorable arm lying beneath Turkish land is an extremely precious bond between our countries!”. When they met in Ankara years after war.
- had his minister, who was leaving in order to make a speech at the ceremony for the martyrs of Çanakkale, note down “Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives…You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore, rest in peace!”.


Kaynak: ingilizce atatürkün kişiliği
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